Monday, August 24, 2020

Legality and Effectiveness Essay Example for Free

Legitimateness and Effectiveness Essay This paper will examine the parts of B. F. Skinner’s book Walden Two and the suggestions toward determinism or choice inferred through his portrayals and belief systems. The discussion in this paper will introduce the polarity of through and through freedom and determinism and will end with help in favor of unrestrained choice. Definitions for either perfect will be talked about in the paper just as an introduction of Walden Two being a spoof of Plato’s Republic which thusly will likewise give a compact definition with respect to whether the book was written in a through and through freedom viewpoint or that relating to determinism. The associations between Skinner’s ideas of unrestrained choice and determinism are uncontrolled all through the content, and the style by which the book epitomizes Plato’s Republic is striking in its specific situation. Plato’s Republic applies revilements and conversation between his heroes coordinate precisely those belief systems introduced in altercative design in Skinner’s content. Focuses are available in Skinner’s Walden Two through the discussions or appearing banters between the heroes. The hidden thought behind each composing is that of finding and fortifying ideal world. In spite of the fact that now and again Skinner’s work pivots upon the ideas of determinism as in the announcement, â€Å"†¦in the since a long time ago run man is controlled by the state† (257) there is likewise the rationalistic methodology which would express that the general public or the state in this reference would initially must be shaped by the group of free wills all together for an arrangement of codes to be first instated. The practical standards of this code comment on the significance of salubrious living which is additionally commanded by general resilience (148). The subject of perfect world advances in his work through the way toward dodging relational clash; along these lines the unrestrained choice which so overwhelms the writing can't in this idealistic state rule the choice of other cultural individuals and in this Catch 22 is discovered a few problems. The belief systems present in Walden Two strive on exploratory brain research and behaviorism. This implies Walden Two is an examination in lieu of understanding conduct as an element of natural accounts of encountering results. These encounters dig into the feature of Walden Two’s society being introduced as an ideal world because of their act of logical social arranging and the manner by which they condition their youngsters (as referenced earlier in the codes). Walden Two is organized after Thoreau’s Walden (just as Plato’s Republic) which premise life after a way of life in which war isn't upheld and the cultivating of rivalry isn't established which thusly drives inseparably to social hardship being expelled. Likewise, Skinner presents a general public by which insignificant utilization is found and a rich social connections, individual joy, and a delightful work and relaxation life is purposely brought into every territory of society through the codes refered to in the paper in the past. Through and through freedom at that point turns into a factor in this idealistic culture because of its foundation. Skinner features all through Frazier’s revilements that the innovation of conduct is the thing that makes a general public increasingly acceptable to the individuals which acquire and live in that society. Subsequently, the self-ruling specialist isn't the main thrust of such a general public but instead the main impetus turns into the first character structure of Walden Two. In Skinner’s society unrestrained choice is additionally decided through foundation by method of Walden Two offering credit to the person for work achieved by their own activities. Accordingly, the general public depends on the starting power of a worldview or code or activity and this is the place the meaning of unrestrained choice might be found all through the setting of the content. The activities of the characters in the general public are not deterministically grounded yet rather, the earth and hereditary possibilities of opportunity cause the general public to be founded on reality whereby reality in this sense is controlled by the individual and not by the general public or strategies for activities found through nature in which choice turns into a driving force of determinism. The Experimental Analysis of Behavior and Applied Behavior Analysis are procedures characteristic in human undertakings as characterized by Skinner. On the side of the thought of through and through freedom, Skinner composes, â€Å"I have just a single significant trademark, I’m difficult. I’ve had just a single thought in my lifeâ€a genuine idee fixe, having my own way† (271). The possibility of determinism is that unrestrained choice is a trademark that is nonexistent on the grounds that factors in a person’s domain don't consider the worldview of decision to have any importance in choices, wants, needs, or in general close to home fulfillment or different feelings portrayed through choice (desire, love, inner self, possessiveness, and so forth ). Frazier anyway calls attention to Castle that â€Å"determinism doesn’t involve that conduct is consistently unsurprising anything else than it infers that the climate is consistently predictable† (391). Society and social just as mental conduct are items which pivot upon causal laws which implies that we can’t have unrestrained choice; however counter to this contention it is introduced in the assemblage of content that choice is characterized through decisions that are unsurprising ahead of time which is really counter deeply meaning of choice in which determinism of occasions and activities can't be estimated through premonition or some other propelled markers. Frazier contends that through and through freedom and consequently free decisions would be capricious, yet differentiating this conviction, Frazier states, â€Å"â€Å"For the last a few thousand days, I’ve picked willingly not to color my hair orange. Thusly, it is entirely likely that tomorrow, I will pick willingly not to color my hair orange. † (391). This is certainly not a solid counter contention to determinism and by this exclusion, it is demonstrated that unrestrained choice is the calculate included Skinner’s Walden Two, in light of the fact that Frazier’s own volition in the above contention really expresses that he thinks through and through freedom is just founded on unconventionality. The premise of the contention in Walden Two that is on the side of determinism is that on the off chance that determinism is valid, at that point unrestrained choice by restriction can't be valid, in any case, in this roundabout contention there exists false notions for, Skinner is accepting that there can't co-propensity a general public where both determinism and through and through freedom can't become authority; in any case, this can't be a respectable contention since its premise is just found in the way that one can't be genuine at the same time. Mansion contends with the expectation of complimentary will through the premise of understanding. Both Castle and Frazier contend that a person’s conduct can be controlled or limited through the authorization of power or physical restriction. Through such implementation be that as it may, the impelling of authorization further prompts the individual being constrained upon to respond by method of such power advancing enmity and feel unfree which promotes the idea of unrestrained choice in the reality of a response to drive. Despite the fact that Skinner doesn't advance power as a type of discipline in Walden Two there is a positive reason in the limitation of power which drives the peruser to accept that unrestrained choice is attempting to be staunched in the general public and along these lines implementation can't be utilized in light of the fact that it just instigates through and through freedom. Rather, Skinner premise his perfect world on the procedure of uplifting feedback. This implies individuals from Walden Two are given things they like or the things they like are detracted from them on the off chance that they have acted adversely. In this way, encouraging feedback isn't resolved to be equivalent to discipline and in this manner, the general public can be moderately characterized as staunching through and through freedom which implies that the general public is in acknowledgment of unrestrained choice, yet, choice in the general public perseveres in light of the fact that Walden Two plans its foundation in the wake of scotching choice, at any rate in the occasion of uplifting feedback. Walden Two is assisted intended to deliver an idealistic culture by method of characterizing conduct as being resolved through previous history of uplifting feedback, just as the nearness of condition. Frazier says â€Å"it’s not control that’s lacking when one feels ‘free,’ yet the frightful control of power. † In the absolute best society, individuals will feel free since its rulers utilize the study of â€Å"reinforcement theory† or operant molding to inspire attractive conduct without the utilization of power. Frazier: â€Å"Now that we know how encouraging feedback works†¦we can be increasingly fruitful in our social plan. † (p. 394). In this manner, in spite of the fact that the idea of encouraging feedback features behaviorism, the demonstration of support is further helping in the improvement of unrestrained choice just by perceiving that through and through freedom is characteristic and as an innate quality estimates must be taken so as to check choice, in the perspective on uplifting feedback in Walden Two. The idea of previous history being of significance to behaviorism in both through and through freedom and determinism, Stace states, â€Å"If a man’s activities were entirely dictated by chains of causes extending once again into the remote past, with the goal that they could be anticipated in advance by a brain which knew all the causes, it was expected that they couldn't all things considered be free. This suggests a specific meaning of activities done from through and through freedom was expected, in particular that they are activities not entirely dictated by causes or unsurprising in advance. Let us abbreviate this by saying that unrestrained choice was characterized as importance indeterminism. This is the erroneous definition which has prompted the disavowal of through and through freedom. When we see what the genuine definition is we will find that the inquiry whether the world is deterministic†¦or in a measure indeterministic †¦is entirely unimportant to the

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Pavement Design Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Asphalt Design - Term Paper Example The Structural Number is a worth that applies to the overallâ pavement structure, yet for a total plan it is an essential to get from this incentive to the individual layer thicknesses. This is taken care of utilizing a condition of the sort appeared: what's more, can be adjusted to any number of asphalt layers, since every articulation, (for example, a2D2M2) in the recipe relates to a solitary layer, so the factors in the articulation compare to the attributes of that layer. The addendum number utilized in the articulation basically shows which layer is implied, with the numbering starting at the highest point of the asphalt structure. The factors speak to the accompanying: The layer and waste coefficients are values that ought to reflect attributes of the material used to develop that asphalt layer. The thicknesses of the individual layers are viably what is utilized to plan condition, and the Structural Number, to make sense of. Since the layer coefficient speaks to the quality of the material, this is the essential variable that factors in the kind of material to use for each layer. For configuration purposes, layer coefficients are commonly decided experimentally dependent on the exhibition of the material. Offices regularly set explicit layer coefficient esteems for ordinarily utilized materials as a standard plan strategy. Some run of the mill layer coefficient esteems are:Hot blend black-top †0.44, street blend (low steadiness) †0.20, total base †0.13, built fill †0.10 Since the layer coefficient can be influenced by material properties just as the situation of the layer in which the material will be utilized, now and again various qualities may be fitting for nearby conditions. A waste coefficient is a worth allocated to an asphalt layer that speaks to its overall loss of solidarity due toâ drainage characteristicsâ and presentation to dampness immersion. Layers that

Monday, July 20, 2020

Book Report on Last Call The Rise and Fall of Prohibition

Book Report on Last Call The Rise and Fall of Prohibition Last Call: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition Dec 23, 2019 in Book Report The Rise of Prohibition In January, 1920, the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution became operative. Since that time and till December, 1933 Americans were forbidden to produce, hold or deal out alcoholic beverages. However, Daniel Okrent demonstrates this time in his social work, Last Call: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition, as the culmination of decades of social and political activism by a broad communion of anti-alcoholic citizens. What is more, there is still the echo of these effects in nowadays, both law and social custom, and it is a negative side of disturbing government policy. One may ask: How did this happen and why would Americans restrain their precious right to drink? Okrent gives the sobering answers in his book. The variant of Prohibition the author proposed is not a restriction in its usual way. Okrent makes it into the war made by small-town white Protestants. They felt beleaguered by the forces of change. There were a lot of authors, who described Prohibition, but Okrent proposes an amazingly unique story. This tale shows the way how its proponents united the fears of lots of Americans with legitimate concerns about the immorality of alcohol, to form a movement powerful enough to make corrections to the United States Constitution. Okrent describes the Prohibition era in a narrative and delightful way. He gives a list of the wettest cities, including Baltimore, Chicago, New Orleans, and San Francisco. However, the leader is Detroit, the corrupt metropolis, also known as the city on a still. Illegal alcohol business employed over 50000 people in this city. Surely, politicians or police officers were not involved. That seems very similar to nowadays business. That is why Okrent defies the chance to bond Prohibition to the current political situation. However, the comparison is rather persuasive. The book is full of different stories, which, in their turn, tell about different cities, towns, and even villages. Some of these cities are named and listed; some are not. Okrent has in his writing both wit and historical perspicacity. He shows the revelation of a confluence of diverse forces through the Prohibition: womens suffrage movement gains more political power; native-stock Protestants fear they have lost control over the immigrants of large cities; World War I stocked the anti-German attitudes, and a great range of other factors, which both affect the Prohibition and are affected by it. Okrent avoids political minutiae in his book. At the same time, he pays attention to the illumination of personalities. These factors make story readable. The author compares different facts, which appear in the time he describes, but avoids the comparison between past events of Prohibition and nowadays Drug Wars. It was mentioned above that he denied connecting his story to modern political life. However, even a casual reader can notice his sluggish ideas. Book does not discuss only the questions of Prohibition. It also covers other themes, but in the light of Prohibition. Okrent points out religious questions and prejudice generally, Jewish involvement in illegal liquor distribution, and sales. One man is arrested without any signs, to be suspected, just for his surname and religion. Lots of people could find this book interesting from the very first page. Okrent adds just enough humor and irony to his writing. That makes the book interesting without ruining the main line. The author pays the readers attention to the industrial questions. Wine industry became the most inconsequential player in this fight. At the same time, beer industry and ordinary brewers, due to their German roots, were engaged in internecine warfare. Anyway, it is not the end of the book. There is a continuous struggle of the whole country. The question of Prohibition is still under discussion. Even The Simpsons had the episode, which showed the Prohibitions consequences brightly. Prohibition from Okrents point of view is not only the consequences, but also the struggle, freedom-loving spirit of the nation, its sufferings (not for everybody it was the time of suffering, quite the contrary) and trying to survive both the World and Constitutional War. Conclusion The book, Last Call: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition, is a significant discovery of the period and movements that lead to one of the nations biggest faults. It touches everything the reader expects speakeasies, gangsters, bootleggers. At the same time, it does not dwell on the obvious. Quite the contrary, the emphasis is made on the people and organizations, which formed and then defiled Prohibition. These people manipulated Presidents, Congress and public and fomented anti-immigrant politics and the fear of urbanism. A phenomenal job is made by the author, to bring all his ideas into life. He describes political events and personalities, carefully elucidating their roles in forming of the United States and the development of the country. He uses not the personalities, but their actions in a key historical period, in the chronicles of the republic. People needed more than ten years to understand all the consequences of Prohibition, such as increased lawlessness, corruption, greed and violence. Last Call leaves the reader wondering how long it will take, to stop and understand the consequences of nowadays Drug Wars and other Constitutional changes and amendments. It helps to make a conclusion by oneself, which is not the least of the facts making the book worth of attention.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Social Media Affects on Mental Health - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1107 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2019/04/10 Category Society Essay Level High school Topics: Social Media Essay Did you like this example? With over 2.34 billion users worldwide, social media has readily become a massive platform for a variety of uses such as advertising, entertainment, and communication (Statista, 2018). The number of users is expected to continue to grow to 2.95 billion within the next two years (Statista, 2018). It is reported that North America is the densest with social media usage climbing over a 66 percent and over 80 percent of teenagers use a cell phone on a regular basis (Statista, 2014). Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Social Media Affects on Mental Health" essay for you Create order Daily time consumption through social media is also on the rise going from an average of 96 minutes back in 2012 to 118 minutes in 2016 (Statista, 2014). With the ever growing number of individuals on social media and the daily time spent on it, we question the mental health effects it has on its users. One issue heavily linked to the internet and social media is online bullying; over half of teenagers have been bullied online and half of these individuals have had this occur to them on more than one occasion (Bullyingstatistics, 2015). Around 20 percent of these young people experience cyberbullying regularly, which is no surprise considering 81% of these teens believe that bullying online is easier to get away with than it is doing in person (Bullyingstatistics, 2015). To make matters more complicated only one out of ten victims will ever inform an adult about their abuse (Bullyingstatistics, 2015). The effects of online bullying is rather unfortunate; victims of bullying are two to eight times more likely to consider committing suicide. Apart from direct online bullying, social media was linked to experiencing negative mental health outcomes even with seemingly non harmful usage. Studies showed a less moment to moment happiness and less satisfaction in life (Kross, 2013). It also showed that any comparison made regardless of whether its looking up to or looking down on someone resulted in the individual feeling worse than before they started. There was also a connection made between envy and depression in facebook use and depressive symptoms (Steers, 2014). Social media appears to be a breeding ground for negative feelings regardless of how we feel prior to being on it. Analysis showed that people who reported usage of more than seven platforms had a three times more risk of having depression and anxiety compared to those two had a maximum of two platforms (Zagorski, 2017). In addition, we saw an increase in major depressive episodes from 8.7% in 2005 to 11.3% in 2014 amongst the younger population (Lin, 2016). Its not to say that the internet is the sole reason for this increase in depression, however research proves that it may be a major contributing factor especially since social media has integrated itself as a major part of peoples daily lives. This makes us question what we can do to stop the detrimental effects social media has on individuals. Anxiety is another mental health issue related to social media. Social media anxiety is actually this feeling of stress and distress that is caused by the usage of social media (Walker, 2018). Some causes of this anxiety include juggling multiple social media platforms at once, having a fear of missing out, comparing oneself to others, needing attention and approval from others, and the overall addiction to using the platforms (Zagorski, 2017). A persons addiction to social assurance has shown to activate parts of the brain that are activated when using drugs that cause addiction (Davey, 2016). All of these create a great deal of stress and the amount of time of electronic usage grows along with it. Social media anxiety is also closely related to the more broader term, social anxiety disorder, which is a feeling of stress/distress caused by social interactions or situations (Walker, 2018). People who exhibit symptoms of social anxiety disorder, like fear of being judged, avoiding soc ial interactions, and having low self esteem, may turn to social media use as an alternative to in-person social interaction. This usage can them stem into these mental health issues that weve talked about. Although we see many negative effects of social media use, of course there is a positive side to it as well. Social media can help people who experience loneliness, social isolation, provide motivation, social support, helps strengthen relationships both new and old, and helps us all stay connected whether its for business, family relations, or others (Naruse, 2017). One of the more important pros to social media use is the ability for us to notice signs of other peoples distress and signs of altered mental health (Naruse, 2017). An example of this would be noticing someone posting depressing statuses or pictures and maybe even noticing their vocalizing of suicidal ideations. Social media has become a platform where someone can so easily express their feelings and thoughts and we can actually use this as a way to notice signs of distress. Its also a great way to bring awareness to these problems and getting people involved in preventing things like cyberbullying. An important role we can all partake, especially as nurses, is educating ourselves about signs of mental health distress, cyberbullying, and risk for suicide as a way to aid in this new epidemic in the youth population. We may not be able to stop cyberbullying or prevent this population from using the internet, but providing support to those experiencing the effects of social media and creating a safe environment for them to come to for help and guidance is a great way to prevent youth from advancing to something like suicide. They need to know that it is safe for them to report any signs of altered mental health and safe to report cyber bullies as well. Most importantly, awareness is the key to helping this population. With social media being a relatively new introduction into our society, the negative effects of its usage has become a new problem and evidently, has become an epidemic. Its effects range widely from altered relationships to altered mental health status and risk for suicide. The number of users are growing every year and being that 80% of those are teenagers, we will begin to see more of the youth population related to mental health disorders (Statista, 2014). Social media has become a new cause for disorders and suicide and unless we become more educated on the matter and how we can aid the youth population, the problem will continue to spread. More research and investigation needs to be conducted on this growing prevalence of social media to truly understand the detrimental effects and discover ways to prevent and treat this. What we can do as nurses is provide youth and their families with information needed to make informed decisions about their health and notice any signs of soc ial media effects in not only themselves but their peers as well.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Future of Genetic Enhancement Essay - 1090 Words

Genetic enhancement appears to be inevitable since technology is making a rapid turn towards genetic enhancement. Because of this fact, concerns over how beneficial or harmful genetic enhancement would be in the future have arisen. We, as a society, need to analyze both sides and decide for ourselves whether we should support the progression of genetic enhancement or do everything in our power to stall or halt it. Genetic enhancement refers to the use of genetic engineering to modify a person’s nonpathological human traits. This concept is aimed at improving the quality of life of humans. Baylis and Robert suggest that, using genetic enhancement, a person could make a physical alternation like increasing muscle mass or slowing down the†¦show more content†¦Benefits from genetic enhancements are widespread. These benefits are evident in physical, intellectual, psychological, and even moral enhancements. One of these benefits is undesired inherited conditions which can be eliminated through genetic enhancement. Some parents believe they should have the choice of preventing inherited diseases from being passed on from one generation to the next. Most of these parents also want to make informed reproductive choices without outside pressures (Iredale, Longley, Thomas, Shaw, 2006). With this physical enhancement, parents could get rid of all the traits they are concerned about and e nd up with healthy, disease- free children. Baylis and Robert suggest that a physical enhancement that could be considered beneficial is reducing sleep dependence (2004). A procrastinating undergraduate student who needs to study for a final or write a term paper could use this enhancement for their own benefit. Military personnel could have the opportunity to conduct more missions and with better precision if they are not sleep deprived. Surgeons would be able to perform surgeries more frequently and with greater accuracy. As a society, reducing sleep dependence would push us toward accomplishing more and greater objectives that otherwise would be impossible because of the amount of time we spend sleeping. Baylis and Robert also argue that psychological and moral enhancements could be beneficial to our society. With geneticShow MoreRelatedThe Future is Here: Genetic Enhancement Essay1762 Words   |  8 PagesThroughout history, society has always placed value on being bigger, stro nger, and faster by any means necessary to obtain these abilities. In order to obtain these abilities, society use genetic enhancements. A genetic enhancement is the use of genetic engineering to modify an individual’s biological traits; in addition, it is the alteration of genes in an individual’s body. Scientists are able to alter individual’s genotype with the purpose of choosing desired phenotype of a newborn. The processRead MoreThe Ethics of Genetically Enhancing Children Essay1330 Words   |  6 Pagesthe genetic makeup of their offspring makes children seem like a commodity in a genetic free market. Thoughts of a dystopian society like the one in the film â€Å"Gattaca† come to mind. However, taking an immediate repugnant stand against genetic enhancement is not well-founded. A more open-minded inspection of the issue reveals that the idea of parents improving their children’s life prospects through genetic engineering (provided it is safe ) is, at its core, not unethical. In fact, some genetic enhancementRead MoreThe Case Against Perfection by Michael Sandels935 Words   |  4 PagesRecent breakthroughs in the field of genetics and biotechnology have brought attention to the ethical issues surrounding human enhancement. 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One must understand the distinctions between the two words - perfect human - and understandRead MoreDoes Genetic Enhancements Affect Human Diversity?1412 Words   |  6 PagesThe concern that instances like these will come about if genetic enhancements are allowed in daily practice is not something to take lightly. If certain traits can be decided on beforehand, what is stopping us from trying to get rid of traits the one may consider undesirable, or even less preferable, and completely wiping out a certain trait of human diversity? Even in 2002 there was concern that even the smallest genetic improvement would put us on the slope to eugenics. These are legitimate concernsRead MoreGenetic Enhancements And Environmental Enhancements1012 Words   |  5 PagesAlthough still a very debated subject, gene tic enhancement has been around for many years with the genetic modification of crops. Just this year, researchers from Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou were the first to modify the genomes of human embryos in order to find a way to eliminate genetic diseases. The researchers used the gene editing technique CRISPR/Cas9, which, in layman’s terms, cuts out the bad genes and replaces the gaps with healthy genes. While this is a major scientific advancementRead MoreWhat Makes Us Human Genome? Essay1427 Words   |  6 Pagesbiological discovery meant for the future of humanity. Thirteen years ago, news sources buzzed with hot-topic articles warning us of designer babies and man-made crops. Based on the frantic journalistic climate of the time, one might think us normal people would soon be replaced by post-humans. To find crude evidence for the decade’s excitement (or disdain) for the upcoming human genetics revolution, one needs only check google search trends for wor ds like ‘genetic enhancement’ or ‘designer baby.’ InterestRead MoreHuman Enhancement Should Be Discontinued1627 Words   |  7 Pagesthey think a perfect baby should be. Genetic Engineering or known to the public as designer babies is a term used to describe the use of technology to modify embryos and choose specific traits that parents want for their newborn. Using this new advance in science should bring concern amongst the people; as efforts to create human perfection can lead to recreating the same ideals and standards of Hitler’s principles of perfect looking human being. Human Enhancement should be discontinued because is notRead MoreInsight Into the Past and Present with Science Fiction 0.4 by Mike Lancester574 Words   |  3 Pagessubsequent consequences in the future. 0.4 by Mike Lancester is a science fiction text which evidently represents the discrimination inflicted upon the ‘inferior’ races by the more ‘superiorâ⠂¬â„¢ races. As this aspect of discrimination has occurred in the past, such as the racism faced by Aboriginal people, Lancester gives us an insight into the past of humanity. Furthermore, by exploring the possibility of social hierarchy in the near future due to genetic enhancements, 0.4 provides an insight into Lancester’sRead MoreThe Case Against Perfection By Michael J. Sandel1358 Words   |  6 Pagesrevolution that leads to the most controversial idea; genetic engineering of humans. When science technology grows exponentially faster than moral understanding, therein lies the argument between these two aspects. One can argue that genetic engineering is some sort of vast achievement in technology especially in this modern era whereby people live in full of access. However, if we look closely at the impact of this technology towards human beings, genetic engineering has many flaws and ramifications that

Crimminal Defense Lawyers Free Essays

A stable career is what one always strives for but actually selecting one is quite the obstacle. When I was younger my mind was flowing with ideas and different possibilities. As time went on, I realized that with my certain talents and abilities I would most likely excel in the field of law and more specifically as a criminal defense attorney. We will write a custom essay sample on Crimminal Defense Lawyers or any similar topic only for you Order Now Naturally I’m an argumentative person who enjoys standing up for myself and others; the fact that the pay is exceptional only gives me more of a reason to pursue the career.Although I know that schooling will take a large amount of time in my early years, The pay is great, and what I have to do on a daily basis is something that will make me feel satisfied at the end of every day. Becoming criminal defense attorney I feel like my aspirations in life will be complete, career wise. The steps toward any career are long and extremely important. The first step toward this career is accomplishing a bachelor’s degree of four years in any field.A potential criminal lawyer may benefit from classes in government, history, economics, public speaking or sociology, but it is up to you if you want to become a double major accomplisher. It’s in my best interest to complete my Bachelor’s degree with high grades. After doing research I realized my studies did not end there. After earning a bachelor’s degree I must apply to, and attend, a law school accredited by the American Bar Association (ABA) or their states bar authorities.Admission requirements typically include high Law School Admission Test (LSAT) scores, undergraduate transcripts, work experience, letters of recommendation and a personal interview. Gomez 2 Once enrolled in a law school, students complete a 3-year program that combines core courses, specialized courses in criminal law and practical experience; many programs also include internships. Criminal law classes typically cover research and writing for criminal law, working with evidence, litigation strategies and ethics in criminal law. Most programs also require students to fulfill writing, general ethics and professionalism requirements as well. Upon completion, law school graduates receive a Juris Doctor (J. D. ) and are eligible to take the state bar exam. Lawyers are required to pass the bar exam before practicing law. Bar examinations are administered by individual state agencies and only license the individual within that state. The test is given nationwide twice a year. Students must typically pass a character evaluation and background test before being granted admission to the bar. While in law school, prospective criminal lawyers should take advantage of any clinical programs and training opportunities available.A clinical program allows students to work in the law school’s legal clinic and provide free legal advice and services to other students, under the supervision of the program professor. Although the path ahead of me is fairly long, I have the determination and ambition to keep striving what I would love to do for the rest of my life. Money does not buy happiness nor does it take away sadness. But in the field of Law the pay is great. Financially awarding I would be receiving anywhere from 87 thousand to 150 thousand yearly in the state of Florida.The money I would be earning I would use to help my family move forward and succeed. Now with the unemployment issues and the lack of company’s hiring, many households have gone to waste. With the money I would be earning I would also move to different states where the pay is far larger and I cud also help out not only Gomez 3 people with in my state but out of state as well. Although this has it disadvantages because I would have to take the BAR exam in whatever state I would like to move into and re-certify in the state I’m currently living in.As long as I financially administer my money correctly I won’t be facing serious problems with Bankrupt. The award I would receive from helping others leave large problems that occur in their lives and give them the sense of freedom is far more rewarding in my eyes then actually living in a big house. As a criminal defense attorney I aspire to be the golden resource people in my community long for to help them. With all the year of experience I will be training for in school, and everything I will be lea rning will all be put to the test in the real world. I am determined to excel in my fullest potential to receive the upmost grades to be sure I am fully qualified for everything that I have to do. As a criminal lawyer I will specifically be helping people who have made mistakes. Whether they have been charged with DUI, Driving with a Suspended License, Assault Battery, Domestic Violence, Drug Offenses, Theft Offenses, Probation Violations, Violent Crimes, or any other Felony or Misdemeanor. As a criminal defense lawyer I am passionate about the ability to zealously defend each and every client. I strive to provide legal representation as people go through difficult times in their life.Helping others with their problems has always been a dream in my life. Becoming a criminal defense attorney gives me the right with my ability to force a smile on peoples faces that are in need. The schooling will take a lot of hard work but in the end will pay off. The money I would be receiving yearly as my salary will in a way refund my hard work all year and also make me smile. With out a doubt the satisfaction of being just one phone call away for Gomez 4 people in distress gives me the sense of comfort every night that I have accomplished my ultimate goal in my life. How to cite Crimminal Defense Lawyers, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Preparation of 1 Bromobutane Essay Example

Preparation of 1 Bromobutane Paper The aim of the experiment is to produce 1 Bromobutane, an alkane within the bromine group on the terminal group.Chemical SafetyChemicalHazardsSafety measuresSodium BromideNo hazardsNoneButan 1 olHarmful vapour, in liquid state chemical is harmful to skin, can be absorbed and cause internal damage. Flammable.Wear goggles and gloves.If spilled ventilate area and wash contact area.Sulphuric AcidVery Corrosive to eyes, skin and materials.Wear gloves and goggles.For large spillage spread sodium carbonate on spill and wash with waterIf contact with skin occurs wash with water.Sodium HydroxideCorrosive.Skin contact harmful.Solution can cause burns.Very dangerous to eyes.Wear cloves and goggles.If contact with skin or eyes occurs wash thoroughly with water.DiagramMethod* Set the equipment up as shown above (picture 1)* Dissolve 8g of sodium bromide in 10cm3 of pure water and stir to create a homologous solution* Add the sodium bromide to 7 cm3 of butan-1-ol in a 50 cm3 pear shaped flask. To this then add 10 cm3 of concentrated sulphuric acid 1 cm3 at a time.* Mix the solution together by swirling the beaker and then cool under a running tap.* Attach the pear shaped flask to the remainder of the set up equipment and heat until the contents are boiling gently. To prevent over heating use a small Bunsen burner and a gauze.(N.b As the gas given of at this stage of the reaction is hydrogen bromide the experiment must either be carried out in a fume cupboard)* Reflux the solution for half an hour and then re-set the equipment up for direct distillation as shown above (picture B).* Distil the liquid in the flask using a small Bunsen burner. When no more oily drops are obtained stop the distillation. Do not distil the liquid to dryness for the saftey reasons outlined in the hazards table above.* Leave the distillate to settle into two layers, an upper aqueous layer and a lower alkyl bromide layer.* Separate the layers with a separating funnel, discarding the top layer.* Th is leaves the alkyl bromide layer, which is still full of impurities. These include unchanged butan 1 ol, water, hydrogen bromide, bromine and sulphur dioxide.* To purify the alkyl bromide layer transfer the liquid into a separating funnel. Mix the compound with 10 cm3 of pure water, again leave the solution to settle and separate the two layers.* Now mix the bottom layer with 10 cm3 of 2 molar sodium hydroxide. This is to remove the acidic impurities and bromine.* Once the solution has settled run the bottom layer of the solution off into a dry conical flask, and add several pieces of anhydrous calcium chloride.* The liquid will turn cloudy due to the suspended droplets of water. To get rid of these allow the liquid to dry for about ten minutes, swirling the flask occasionally until the liquid becomes clear.* When clear filter the liquid through cotton wool into another clear dry 50 cm3 pear-shaped flask. Add a small amount of powdered pumice and distil, collecting the 1 bromobu tane that will boil of between 99à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C and 103à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½C. This will produce a yield of about 7g or 5.5 cm3, which is 65% of the theoretical yield.EquationC4H9OH + NaBr + H2SO4 = C4H9Br + NaHSO4 + H2OMechanismThe first stage of the reaction the sodium bromide reacts with sulphuric acid and forms hydrogen bromide and sodium hydrogen sulphate:NaBr + H2SO4 = HBr + NaHSO4The hydrogen bromide is then oxidised to bromine molecules due to the fact that concentrated sulphuric acid is a very good oxidising agent. The sulphuric acid reacts to form sulphur dioxide gas:HBr + H2SO4 Br2 + 2SO2 (g)During the next stage of the reaction the hydrogen bromide dissociates and the bromide ion from it attacks the Carbon atom with the -OH function group in Butan-1-ol and displaces the -OH function group forming a bromo function group and a hydroxide ion. This bromo group then associates itself with another H+ ion to form water:CH3CH2CH2CH2OH + Br- CH3CH2CH2CH2Br + OH-In the final stage a molec ule of sulphuric acid attacks the lone pair on an -OH function group. This releases a molecule of water, and a mixture of Butoxybutane and But-1-ene is formed, along with the regenerated Sulphuric Acid:CH3CH2CH2CH2OH + H2SO4 CH3CH2CH=CH2 + H2O + H2SO4or2 CH3CH2CH2CH2OH + H2SO4 CH3(CH2)3O(CH2)3CH3 + H2O + H2SO4ResultsMass of NaBr in pot = 11.47gMass of pot = 3.49gMass of Sodium Bromide = 7.98gMass of collecting beaker = 54.25gMass of distillation and beaker = 58.47gMass of 1 bromobutane collected = 4.22gYield ObtainedTheoretical yield = (moles of limiting reagent)(stoichiometric ratio; desired product/limiting reagent)(Mr of desired product)= (0.0941 mole)(1 mole / 1 mole)(137.03g/ mole)= 12.9gActual mass gained = 4.22gTherefore actual yield = (Actual yield / Theoretical yield) x 100= (4.22/12.9) x 100= 32.7%ConclusionFrom my experiment I have found out that the practical yield of 1 bromobutane when made from butan 1 ol, is a lot lower than the theoretical yield, which was stated in a textbook. This difference in yields could be caused by several reasons most of which are down to human error. The first of these human errors could have occurred whilst the liquids were being decanted from one another, at this stage some of the 1 bromobutane may have been left in the beaker and discarded as to keep the amount of impurities in the flask to a minimum. Another human error, which may have caused a lower yield, would be during direct distillation where the temperature may not have been kept between 99 and 103?c. This would have reduced the yield as the chemicals collected would not be pure and therefore the yield would not be as large. A final human error may have occurred whilst waiting for the substance to dry after the anhydrous calcium chloride has been added, this would have caused a reduced yield as again the substance which was final distilled would have been less pure. Therefore the amount of 1 bromobutane boiled off between the fractions would have been lo wer than in the theoretical experiment.Another reason that the yield may have been lower other than human error would have been any impurities within the solutions, if these impurities did occur then the boiling temperatures of the substances might have been altered. This would effect the amount of substance that is collected in a fraction temperature range and have an overall effect on the final yield. A final reason the practical yield may have been smaller than the theoretical yield is that the reactants may not have been mixed together at optimum conditions, which would reduce the rate of reaction and therefore reduce the final yield.When running the experiment two changes were made, the first was that instead of using potassium bromide as first planned sodium bromide was used. This is because sodium bromide was easier to get a hold of and was more likely to give a decent yield of 1 bromobutane at the end of the experiment. Another change that was made was that at the first dist illation, instead of waiting for all the oily drops to fall the only fraction collected was that which boiled of between 99 to 103?c, the boiling point of 1 bromobutane. This increased the accuracy of the experiment as instead of using qualitative information to decide when to stop distilling the liquid we were using quantitative, making the distil more accurate.Overall however the experiment produced a decent yield of bromobutane even though it was not as high as that worked out in the theoretical experiment.EvaluationOverall I feel that the experiment went well as the final yield produced was at least half of the theoretical yield. However there were a few sources of error and these have been highlighted in the conclusion.There are several ways that some of these problems could have been eradicated, and therefore the final yield would have been even greater. One of the easiest problems would have been to use sensors during distillation to record the temperature this would mean tha t fewer impurities would have been boiled off by accident. Also by setting up the experiment so it was easier to change between conical flasks would reduce that amount of distil which was missed during the change over. Another improvement to increase the yield would be to run the experiment at optimum conditions, which would promote a faster rate of reaction due to more collisions occurring and therefore more products being formed and a higher yield being collected.A final improvement to gain a higher yield would be to have allowed the solution to dry for longer this again would cut out some more impurities and therefore increase the yield. This was not done during the actual exam as time was running out and instead of letting the solution settle and then filter out the solid, the solution was allowed to settle and then the clear layers were removed and placed into the pear shaped flask using a pipette.Even though there were some areas in which the experiment could have been improve d I feel that the experiment went to a decent degree of accuracy and this is shown by the fact that I got quite a large percent of the theoretical yield in my practical yield.